A Timeline of Modern English History


1485 Beginning of Tudor Dynasty, Henry VII assumes the throne
    Central Royal authority was strengthened and private feudal armies suppressed

1487 Rebellion of Lambert Simnel

1509 End of Henry VII's reign – Begin reign of Henry VIII

1513 Battle of Foldden English victory over Scotland

1514 Beginning wars with France and Scotland

1517 End wars with France and Scotland

1520 (June 7) establishment of a short-lived alliance between Henry VIII and Francis I of France

1522 England invades France - invasion unsuccessful

1523 England abandons attempted French invasion

1527 Divorce crisis of Henry VIII begins

1530 Henry VII begins the process of breaking with the papacy
    time of internal instability associated with founding the new church

1534 Church of England established, unrest within England largely subsided

1542 Renewed warfare with France and Scotland
     French landings on the English coast between1545 and 1546
         convince Henry VIII to begin a massive naval construction program.
     Beginning of the modern Royal Navy.
     Beginning of the construction of system of coastal fortifications.

1547 Death of Henry VIII – Begin reign of Edward IV
     Since Edward IV was not of age to rule, Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset, ruled as regent.

1549 Religious/Social Unrest
     Duke of Somerset puts down a Catholic revolt in Devonshire.
     Royal forces under John Dudley, Earl of Warwick, put down a peasant revolt in Norfolk.
     Setbacks in wars with France and Scotland
     French successful in battle outside Houlogne. Scottish recapture Haddington.
     September – Somerset forced out as regent due to war setbacks, social unrest,
          and noble dissatisfaction with his liberal ideas.
     Warwick, Duke of Northumberland, becomes regent.

1550 Peace with France
     France returns Boulogne to England for a cash payment.

1553 Death of Edward IV
(June 6-19) Insurrection of Northumberland Upon the death of Edward VI, Northumberland attempted to place his daughter in law, Lady Jane Grey, on the throne instead of the rightful successor, Edward's sister, Mary. Northumberland was captured, and Jane was deposed and executed after a reign of nine days.

1553 Beginning of the Reign of Mary I
     Re-establishment of Catholicism in England.
     Her marriage to Philip of Spain added to religious unrest,
     many English Catholics joined the Protestants in distrust of Spain and Spanish Catholicism.

1554 Insurrection in Kent Led by Sir Thomas Wyatt, Sir Thomas Carew, and the Duke of Suffolk, this was an attempt to prevent Mary's marriage to Philip. Wyatt was defeated and overpowered while trying to take London. The rebellion collapsed and the leaders were executed.

1555 Persecution of Protestants begins

1557 War begins with France Mary's marriage led to English involvement in Spain's endemic wars with France

1558 End of Mary I's reign / Start of Reign of Elizabeth I (sister of Edward VI and Mary I) Elizabeth returns England to Protestantism, She followed a general policy of avoiding involvement in major continental wars.

1559 England ends war with France

Intervention in Scotland English forces assist Scots against Frenchforces in Scotland. French surrender at Leith in February, 1560.

1562 England sends troops to France to aid the Huguenots.

1568 Beginning of a period of mounting hostilities between Spain and England

1570 Papal Bull declares Elizabeth excommunicated and deposed

1573 Temporary Rapprochement with Spain. Ascendancy of the Guise family in France leads to a temporary reduction of tensions.

1577 Alliance with the Netherlands Republic in their war against Spain, although Elizabeth did not declare war against Spain.

1580 Sir Francis Drake completes his circumnavigation of the World Drake raids Spanish and Portuguese colonies and shipping along the way.

1585 English military assistance to the Netherlands Henry Sidney, Earl of Lester, brings an army of 6,000 men to Holland.
Drake's expeditions to the Caribbean An English expedition under Sir Francis Drake sacked Santo Domingo, Cartagena, St. Augustine and carried out numerous other raids in the West Indies. Expedition ends in 1586.

1587 English army in Netherlands returns to England The army performed poorly, and the Earl of Lester died in the field in the previous year.
(April-June) Drake's Expedition to Cadiz Aware of Spanish plans for the coming armada, Drake sails into the port of Cadiz with a fleet of 23ships and destroys 33 Spanish vessels of all sizes.

1588 Santa Cruz dies Admiral Marquis de Santa Cruz, who was in charge of preparing the Armada, dies on January 30, and was replaced by Alone Perez de Guzman, Duke of Medina Sidonia, who had no naval experience.
May 20 - The armada leaves Lisbon (comprised of 20 great galleons,44 armed merchant ships, 23 transports, 35 smaller vessels, 4 galleasses,and 4 galleys.)
July 19 - Armada sited off the coast of Lizard Head by Englishscout vessels.
July 20 - Lord Howard of Effingham, commander of the Englishforces, sets sail with from Plymouth (34 ships under his command, joinedby 34 under Drake's command, a London squadron of 30 ships, and an additional30 ships under Lord Henry Seymour.)
July 21 - Spanish lose one ship in engagements off Plymouth.
July 23 - No losses on either side as a result of this all daybattle
July 25 - Battle of Dorset. The English are able to replenishtheir ammunition while the Spanish are not. Spanish head for Calis to replenishstocks and pick up troops.
July 26-27 - Armada anchored off Calis, but unable to obtainsupplies due to the blockade of Bruges by the Dutch fleet under the commandof Justinian of Nassau.
July 28 - English send fire ships into the Spanish fleet, whichresponds by cutting anchor and traveling up the coast while suffering heavylosses from English long range fire.
July 29-30 - Unfavorable winds keep Spanish fleet from landinganywhere in the Low Countries. Sedina Sidonia decides to return to Spainby sailing up through the North Sea.
August 2 - English fleet breaks off its pursuit of the Armadaand returns to its home ports.
August-September - The armada suffers heavy losses as it makesits way back to Spain, due to storms, starvation, and thirst. 63 of theoriginal 130 ships returned to Spain.

1589 4,000 English troops land in Normandy to aid Henry of Navarre

1591 Small English force lands at St. Malo and Rouen.

1594 Tyrone Rebellion in Ireland Endemic rebellion in Irelanderupted into full scale war under the leadership of Hugh O'Neil, Earl ofTyrone.

1596 English troops landed during a raid on Cadiz.

1598 English defeated by Irish at the Battle of Yellow Ford onthe Blackwater river.

1601 Spanish Intervention Spain sends 4,000 troops to Irelandand capture Kinsale.

1603 Death of Elizabeth I,End of Tudor dynasty,
     beginningof Stuart dynasty with reign of James I.

English victory Irish-Spanish troops defeated at the Battle of Kinsale.O'Neil surrenders and is pardoned by James I.

1604 October 24 - Unification of Britain The union of the crownsof England and Scotland eliminated internal frontiers and reduced the needfor a standing army, which increased parliamentary authority at the expenseof royal authority.

1605 The Gunpowder Plot the last major Catholic conspiracy

1624 Involvement in 30 Years War James sends a small force of1,200 men to the continent to assist Frederick of Prussia and ChristianIV of Denmark. This army collapses in 1625 due to a lack of training andsupplies.

1625 End of reign of JamesI, beginning of Charles I's reign

1626 Beginning of the Anglo-French war.

1627 The Duke of Buckingham's expedition to the Isle of Re, nearLa Rochelle, to support Huguenot forces ended in defeat.

1628 Buckingham assassinated while preparing another expeditionagainst the French.
     May - The Petition of Right listing of parliamentarygrievances against the king.

1630 November 5 - Peace with France and Spain

1639 First Bishops' War Scotland revolts over the impositionof Anglican liturgy into Scottish Presbyterian services.
     June 18 Pacification of Dunse temporary compromisesettlement

1640 Second Bishops' War hostilities renewed in Scotland
     April-May the "Short Parliament" the Commonsrefuses to grant Charles financial support for the war.
     August 28 Scots defeat Charles' forces atNewburn, Northumberland, and Durham
     November - Treaty of Ripon temporary end tohostilities.
     November 3 - the "Long Parliament" TriennialAct agreed to by Charles I.

1641 October - Outbreak of the Irish War Irish rebellion breaksout
          due to the distastefor the policies of the Earl of Stratford, the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland.
     December 1 - Grand Remonstrance Act passedby Parliament listing the grievances against Charles I.
     Abolition of the councilor courts, abolitionof prerogative taxation, Triennial Bill.

1642 January 3 Charles attempts to arrest 5 leaders in the Commons,attempt fails.
     March - Charles rejects Parliament's attemptto gain control of army.
     June - Parliament raises a 24,000 man army
     August - Charles begins to raise his armyat Nottingham

1643 Kings armies have the advantage
     Scots invade on the side of Parliament

1644 Parliaments armies take the advantage
     June - Battle of Marston Moor Parliament wins,decisive battle in war.

1645 "Clubmen" rising of armed neutrals threaten both sides
     Royalist armies disintegrate
     Parliament forces reorganize into the NewModel Army

1646 King surrenders to Scots
     Bishops and Book of Common Prayer abolished
     Presbyterian Church established

1647 Army revolt Radical movements criticize parliamentary tyranny

1648 Second Civil War Scots now side with the king and are defeated

1649 Trial and executionof Charles I England becomes a republic
     Government by single chamber Rump Parliament
     Oliver Cromwell begins the conquest of Irelandcomplete in 1650

1650 Cromwell begins the conquest of Scotland complete in 1652

1651 Thomas Hobbes publishes Leviathan

1652 First Dutch war begins

1653 Cromwell dissolves Rump Parliament Cromwell becomes LordProtector of Britain, written constitution.

1654 End of the first Dutch war

1655 Beginning of War with Spain
     Royalist insurrection Penruddock's rising,a complete failure

1658 Cromwell dies and is succeeded by his son Richard

1659 Richard overthrown by army Rump is restored, but displeasesthe army

1660 Restoration of the Stuarts - Charles II takes the throne

1662 Church of England restored

1663 Failure of first Royal attempt to grant religious toleration

1665 Second Anglo-Dutch War begins
     Great Plague final major outbreak

1666 The Great Fire of London

1667 Second Anglo-Dutch War ends
     Milton's Paradise Lost published allegoryfor the failed revolution

1672 Third Anglo-Dutch War begins
     Failure of second royal attempt to grant religioustoleration

1674 Third Anglo-Dutch War Ends

1679 The Exclusion Crisis beginning of the Whig and Tory parties

1685 February 6 - James II takes the throne

1687 Newton's Principia Mathematica published

1688 William of Orange invadesJames II flees the country

1689 February 13 - William of Orange andMary Stuart named joint sovereigns of England by Parliament.
       Irish War begins

1690 Battle of the Boyne William III defeats Irish and Frencharmies

1691 Irish War ends English victory

1694 Bank of England founded
            Death of Queen Mary

1697 Civil List Act Parliament votes funds for the maintenanceof the royal household.

1699 February Disbanding Act Parliament reduces the size of theBritish standing army to 7,000 to limit William III's involvement in continentalwarfare.

1700 Importation of Indian muslin and printed calicoes is forbidden

1701 June 12 Act of Settlement Parliament states thatthe English crown
     will go to the Electors of Hanover, throughSophia, granddaughter of James I,
          after Anne,daughter of James II had reigned.
     September 16 James II dies in France
     Beginning of the War of the Spanish Succession

1702 Death of William III,Anne Stuart takes the throne

1704 British capture Gibraltar from Spain

1705 Newcomen's fire-engine

1707 May 1 Union of England and Scotland Establishes theUnited Kingdom of Great Britain.

1708 James Edward, the Pretender, lands in Scotland his welcomeis lukewarm
          and he returnsto France in the same year.
     Abraham Darby takes lease of Coalbrookdale

1710 Fall of the Whig Ministry Tories cometo power - Harley ministry

1713 End of the War of the Spanish Succession Treaty of Utrecht

1714 August 1 - Death of Anne Stuart, beginning of the HanoverDynasty with George I, Elector of Hanover.

1715 September - Beginning of the Jacobite Rebellion in Scotlandinitial successes, James Edward arrives from France in December.

1716 Septennial Act no parliament can sit for longer than sevenyears without an election
     February - Jacobite rising defeated JamesEdward returns to France.

1719 Spanish Expedition to Scotland Spanish fleet sailing toScotland to put Stuarts back on the throne is scattered by a storm anddoes not meet its objective.

1720 South Sea Bubble Many investors are ruined after speculationin the stock of the South Sea Company
     Wearing of pure cotton cloth prohibited

1721 Walpole ministry

1727 George I dies, George II becomes king
     beginning of war with Spain

1729 End of war with Spain

1730 Lord Townshend retires from the ministry to devote himselfto agricultural improvement

1733 Excise crisis Walpole must abandon plans to reform customsand excise duties.
      Kay's fly shuttle invented
      Jethro Tull's Horse-hoeing Husbandrypublished

1737 Death of Queen Caroline

1738 Lewis Paul's roller-spinning machine invented

1739 Beginning of "War of Jenkin's Ear" Anglo-Spanish naval war

1740 Beginning of the War of the Austrian Succession

1742 Fall of Wallpole

1744 Pelham ministry

1745 Beginning of "The Forty-five" James Edward once again comesto England to reclaim his throne.

1746 End of "The Forty-five" Scottish uprising suppressed, JamesEdward returns to France. Scotsmen now forbidden to wear their nationaldress.

1748 End of "War of Jenkin's Ear" with Spain
     End of the War of the Austrian SuccessionPeace of Aix-la-Chapelle

1749 Iron manufactures suppressed in the American colonies

1751 War between British and French in India

1752 Adoption of Gregorian Calendar

1754 War between English and French colonists in America begins
     Newcastle ministry

1756 Beginning of the Seven Years War Britain allied with Frederickthe Great of Prussia against France, Austria, and Russia.

1758 Threshing machine invented
     Bridgewater Canal constructed

1760 Death of George II, accession of GeorgeIII
     Carron Iron Works opened

1761 Wilkinson sets up furnaces in Bersham

1762 Bute ministry

1763 End of the Seven Years War Peace of Paris

1764 Hargreaves' spinning jenny invented

1765 American Stamp Act meant to pay for the defense of the Americancolonies
     Rockingham ministry

1766 Chatham ministry begins

1768 Grafton ministry begins
     Cook's first voyage in the Pacific begun

1769 James Watt's steam engine patented
     Arkwright's "water frame" patented

1770 Lord North's ministry begins

1773 Boston Tea Party a protest against the East India Company'smonopoly on tea exports to American colonies

1774 Coercive Acts Passed in retaliation for the Boston Tea Party
     Arkwright's carding machine patented
     Wearing pure cotton cloth permitted by law
     Priestley discovers oxygen

1775 Thomas Spence's The Real Rights of Man published
     War of American Independence begun

1776 Declaration of American Independence
     Edward Gibbon's Decline and Fall of theRoman Empire published
     Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations published

1777 First Bath and West of England Agricultural Show held

1779 Crompton's mule invented

1781 British surrender at Yorktown end of American RevolutionaryWar

1782 Second Rockingham ministry

1784 Henry Cort's puddling process patented
     Bell's cylindrical process of calico printing
     Andrew Meikle's threshing machine
     Watt's double-acting steam-engine

1783 Shelburne ministry
     Pitt ministry

1784 East India Act

1785 Steam-engines first applied to spinning machinery
     Arkwright's patents declared invalid
     New Lanark Mills founded by David Dale
     Cartwright's first patent for a power loom

1786 Eden's commercial treaty with France

1789 French Revolution

1791 Thomas Paine's The Rights of Man published
     Spinning jenny applied to wool

1792 Coal and gas used for lighting

1793 Outbreak of war with France
     Eli Whitney's cotton gin
     Commercial depression begins

1794 Habeas Corups suspended

1795 "Speenhamland" system of relief made wages equal to thecosts of subsistence
     Beginning of the United Irishmen Revolt

1796 Vaccination against smallpox introduced

1797 United Irishmen Revolt ends brutally repressed by Britishforces
     Cash payments by the Bank of England suspended
     The British Naval Mutinies

1798 Malthus's Essay on Population first published
     Income tax (10% on incomes over £200)

1799 Napoleon appointed First Consul in France
     Beginning of commercial boom
     Trade Unions suppressed under the CombinationLaw
     Serfdom of Scottish coal miners abolished
     Limited free trade established between Britainand Ireland

1801 Union with Ireland
     End of commercial boom
     First British Census estimated population8,892,536
     Surrey Iron Railway

1802 Peace with France
     Peel introduces first factory legislation
     West India Dock completed

1803 War with France begins again
     Horrock's improved power loom patented
     General Enclosure Act simplifies the processof enclosure of common land

1805 Battle of Trafalgar Nelson defeats the French and Spanishfleets

1806 Death of Pitt, Lord Grenville becomesPM

1807 Abolition of the slave trade

1808 Peninsular War begins
     East India Docks opened

1809 Economic boom begins

1811 Depression sets in
     Luddite riots in Nottinghamshire

1812 Beginning of war with United States of America
     Napoleon's Russian campaign

1813 Monopoly of East India Company abolished
     Henry Bell's steamboat Comet plies on theClyde

1814 Stephenson's railway engine used to haul coal
     Repeal of Statute of Apprentices

1815 Battle of Waterloo
     Congress of Vienna
     Corn Law passed
     Beginning of a commercial boom

1817 Recession sets in

1819 Peterloo Massacre
     The Savannah crossed the Atlantic partly understeam power

1820 Death of George III,accession of George IV

1821 Famine in Ireland begins
     Cash payments resumed by the Bank of England

1822 Greek war of independence begins

1823 End of Irish famine

1824 Trade boom begins
     Repeal of laws against the export of machineryand artisans

1825 Trade Unions legalized
     Stockton and Darlington railway opens
     Commercial depression begins

1827 Liverpool retires, Canning becomesPM

1829 Catholic Emancipation
     Greece wins independence
     Metropolitan Police established

1830 Death of George IV, accessionof William IV
     Liverpool and Manchester railway opens

1831 Swing riots rural workers protesting against mechanizationof agriculture

1832 Great Reform Bill introduces the "10pound" voter franchise

1833 Factory Act limiting child labor

1834 Slavery abolished it the British Empire
     Grand National Consolidated Trade Union Founded

1835 Commercial boom - Major increase in railway building begins

1837 Death of William IV, accessionof Victoria I

1838 People's Charter drafted
     The Great Western Railway opened London toBath and Bristol

1839 Chartist riots
     Capture of Hong Kong
     Beginning of Afgan war

1840 Railway regulation act

1841 Tories assume power, Peel becomesPM

1842 Income tax revived
     End of Afgan war

1843 End of Opium War with China

1844 Boom in railway building begins Result of the Cheep TrainsAct
     Irish potato famine begins
     First telegraph in England

1846 Corn Laws abolished
     Peel resigns, Lord JohnRussell becomes PM

1848 European revolutions
     Last great Chartist demonstration

1949 Repeal of Navigation Laws

1851 Great Exhibition Crystal Palace showcases the industrialmight of Britain
     Submarine cable laid across the English Channel

1852 Russell Resigns, Earl of Derbybecomes PM

1854 Crimean War begins

1855 Newspapers duties repealed
     Aberdeen resigns, Palmerston becomes PM

1856 Crimean War ends

1857 Start of second Opium War opens China to European trade
     Production of aniline dyes started

1858 End of Second Opium War
     Indian Mutiny and India Act
     Palmerston resigns, Lord Derby becomes PM

1859 Publication of Darwin's Origin of the Species
     Great London builders strike

1860 Anglo-French "Cobden" treaty

1861 Death of Albert, Prince Consort
     US Civil war causes cotton famine in Lancashire

1862 Limited Liability Act provides stimulus to business interests

1863 War with Japan to open Japanese ports to trade

1865 October - Death of Palmerston, Russell becomes PM

1866 Derby forms a minority Conservative government
     Submarine cable laid across the Atlantic

1867 Dominion of Canada Act
     Second Reform Act household franchise in boroughs

1868 February - Disraeli becomes PM (Conservative)
     Gladstone forms Liberal Government

1869 Suez Canal opened
     Irish Church disestablished
     Debt imprisonment ended

1870 Irish Land Act
     Elementary Education Act

1871 Purchase of commissions in the army abolished

1874 Disraeli forms Conservative government

1875 British government buys controlling shares in Suez Canal
     Agricultural depression deepens due to new grain supplies from Russia and
          the United States entering the European market for the first time.

1876 Victoria proclaimed Empress of India
     Compulsory Education enacted

1877 Confederation of British and Boer states in South Africa

1878 Congress of Berlin
     Edison's bipolar dynamo invented

1879 Economic depression deepens
     Zulu war
     Incandescent lamp invented

1880 First Anglo-Boer war
     Synthetic indigo manufactured
     Employers Liability Act passed

1882 Britain occupies Egypt
     Triple Alliance between Germany, Austria,and Italy

1885 Burma annexed
     Third Reform Act household franchise in counties
     Salisbury's first Conservative government

1886 Gladstone becomes PM (Liberal Party)
     First Home Rule Bill for Ireland splits theLiberal Party
     Gold found in Transvaal
     Royal Niger Company chartered
     1886 Conservatives return to powerunder Salisbury

1887 British East Africa Company chartered

1889 London dock strike
     Board of Agriculture instituted
     British South Africa Company chartered

1892 Liberals return to power under Gladstone

1893 Second Home Rule Bill rejected by the House of Lords
     Independent Labor Party founded

1894 Gladstone resigns, Lord Rosebery becomes PM

1896 Sudan conquest begins

1897 Workmen's Compensation Act

1898 Sudan under British control Fashoda incident
     German naval expansion begins

1899 May-June First Hague Peace Conference
     Second Anglo-Boer war begins

1900 "Khaki" election won by Salisbury
     Commonwealth of Australia Act

1901 Death of Victoria I- Edward VII becomes king

1902 Anglo-Japanese alliance
     End of Boer War Peace of Vereeniging

1903 Tariff Reform Campaign started
     Wright brothers make first airplane flight

1904 Anglo-French Entente
     Committee on Imperial Defense (Esher Committee)
          major reorganizationof British armed forces in light of the Boer War experiences

1905 Campbell-Bannerman's Liberal Government
     Morocco Crisis
     Beginning of the Haldane Military Reforms

1906 Launching of the H.M.S Dreadnought First all big-gun battleship,with 10 12" guns.
     Labor Party formed

1907 Anglo-Russian Entente

1908 Beginning of Asquith's Liberal Government
     Old Age Pension plan introduced
     Eight hour day in coal mines introduced

1910 Death of Edward VII - accession ofGeorge V
     Churchill's Employment Exchanges introduced

1911 Moroccan Crisis
     Serious railroad, mining, and coal strikeslasting until 1912

1912 Failure of Anglo-German naval talks
     First minimum wage laws for miners
     Beginning of the Balkan war

1913 End of the Balkan war Peace of London

1914 Third Home Rule Act for Ireland passed and suspended
     March 20 - Curragh "Mutiny" Brigadier GeneralHubert Gough resigns
          rather thancarry out orders that would have forced them to compell the population
          of Ulster toaccept Home Rule under the separatists of southern Ireland.
     June 28 - Assassination of Archduke Ferdinandat Sarajevo
     August 4 - British Empire enters firstWorld War

1915 Dardanelles expedition ending in British withdrawal fromGallipoli in 1916
     Unofficial strike on Clyde
     South Wales miners strike

1916 Battle of the Somme
     Battle of Jutland
     Lloyd George succeeds Asquith as Prime Minister

1917 Battle of Passchendaele
     Food Ministry reorganized

1918 November 11 - End of first World War

1919 Treaty of Versailles
     London police strike
     National railway strike
     Cotton Operatives strike

1920 Civil war in Ireland
     Deflation and price slump sets in
     First meeting of League of Nations

1921 "Triple Alliance" Miners, dockers, and railwaymen strikeon "Black Friday," but strike is broken when dockers and railwaymen backdown.

1922 Fall of LLoyd George, Bonar Law leads Conservative government

1923 Bonar Law resigns, Stanley Baldwin becomes PM

1924 January - First Laborgovernment headed by MacDonald

1925 Britain goes back on the gold standard

1926 May 3-12 - General strike

1931 Financial Crisis Britain goes off the gold standard.
     Hoover moratorium on inter-governmental debt
     Gold standard collapses

1932 Ottoawa Conference institutes imperial preference on tradewithin the British Empire

1935 Conservatives win election, Baldwin becomes PM
     June 18 Anglo-German Naval Agreement Germantonnage would not exceed 35% of English tonnage.
          (This agreementestranged France from Britain).
     September - Ethiopian Crisis

1936 Death of George V - Edward VIII abdicates - George VI becomes king

1937 Neville Chamberlain becomes new Conservative PM
     January 2 - Anglo-Italian Mediterranean Agreement

1938 September 29 - Munich Agreement

1939 March 31 - British Guarantee to Poland
     September 3 - Britain declares war on Germany

1940 Churchill replaces Chamberlain as PM
     British withdrawal from Dunkirk
     Battle for Britain

1941 Luftwaffe blitz on many British cities
     Soviet Union and the United States enter the war

1942 Loss of Singapore
     Battle of Stalingrad
     Beveridge Report on Social Security

1943 Successful North African Campaigns
     Anglo-American armies invade Italy

1944 D-Day invasion of France
     Butler's Education Act

1945 May 8 - End of second World War in Europe
     August 15 - End of war in far East
     Landslide Labor victory Clement Attlee becomes Prime Minister
     Beginning of involvement in Greece
     Beginning of troubles in Arabia Intermittent frontier conflicts in Aden and Arabian Protectorates.

1947 India, Pakistan, and Burma become independent
     Pound convertibility crisis pound only able to remain freely convertible with the US dollar for one month.
     Coal and other industries nationalized
     Treaty of Dunkirk: A 50 year Anglo-French alliance, also including the Benelux countries.

1948 Beginning of the Berlin Blockade RAF units participate.

1949 NATO founded
     April 18 - Independence of Eire: Ireland breaks off all ties with Great Britain
          and becomes an independent state.
     devaluation of the pound

1950 March 29 - Churchill urges the rearmament of Germany
     Korean War begins

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